Turnbull's main job was to be the Chief Engineer of the East Indian Railway Company responsible for building the first railway 541 miles from Howrah to Varanasi (then Benares).  In the 2011 West Bengal Legislative Assembly election, Left Front was defeated by the Trinamool Congress. As a result, both North and South Bengal will witness foggy mornings. Kolkata is known for its literary, artistic and revolutionary heritage; as the former capital of India, it was the birthplace of modern Indian literary and artistic thought. Also situated here are the Sealdah station, one of the largest train hubs in India, and the newly built Kolkata station. The Victoria Memorial, a place of interest in Kolkata, has a museum documenting the city's history. In 1985, prime minister Rajiv Gandhi dubbed Kolkata a "dying city" in light of its socio-political woes. It consists of many neighbourhoods such as Shyambazar, Bagbazar, Kumartuli, Shobhabazar, Posta, Jorasanko, Rajabazar, Phoolbagan, Maniktala, Kankurgachi, Ultadanga, Chitpur, Belgachia, Tala, Cossipore, and Sinthee.There are many old heritage buildings and temples and also the well known Shovabazar Rajbari.  Some Kolkata schools, for example La Martiniere Calcutta, Calcutta Boys' School, South Point School, St. James' School (Kolkata), St. Xavier's Collegiate School and Loreto House, have been ranked amongst the best schools in the country.. 3:04. Bengal's large repertoire of seafood dishes includes various preparations of ilish, a fish that is a favourite among Calcuttans. Kolkata: The Regional Meteorological Centre at Alipore has predicted that some parts of North Bengal are likely to receive low pressure-induced rainfall in the next 48 hours.  One unorganised group, roadside hawkers, generated business worth ₹ 87.72 billion (US$ 2 billion) in 2005. The city's main bus terminals are located at Esplanade and Babughat. Philips India, PricewaterhouseCoopers India, Tata Global Beverages, Tata Steel have their registered office and zonal headquarters in Kolkata. :99 Chitpur locality of the city houses multiple production companies of jatra, a tradition of folk drama popular in rural Bengal. Often, in April–June, the city is struck by heavy rains or dusty squalls that are followed by thunderstorms or hailstorms, bringing cooling relief from the prevailing humidity.  The capital was moved to New Delhi in 1911. 2200 Square feet Plot for sale in Alipore, Kolkata. It was founded in 1793, making it one of the oldest rackets clubs in the world, and the first in the Indian subcontinent. The north suburban areas like Dum Dum, Baranagar, Belgharia, Sodepur, Khardaha, New Barrackpore, Madhyamgram, Barrackpore, Barasat etc. Dance accompanied by Rabindra Sangeet, a music genre started by Rabindranath Tagore, Sandesh, a typical Bengali sweet made from chhena, A murti, or representation, of the goddess Durga shown during the Durga Puja festival, Kolkata Gate, also known as Biswa Bangla Gate, The first newspaper in India, the Bengal Gazette started publishing from the city in 1780. In 1883, Calcutta was host to the first national conference of the Indian National Association, the first avowed nationalist organisation in India.  In the period 2005–2007, Sunfeast Open, a tier-III tournament on the Women's Tennis Association circuit, was held in the Netaji Indoor Stadium; it has since been discontinued.. “The tram would run on Shyambazar-Esplanade and Esplanade-Gariahat routes, spanning across north and south Kolkata, every day from morning to evening. You will find more apartment blocks and green patches here. The SC has banned Chhath puja at the Rabindra Sarobar Lake in south Kolkata. :11 About 34% of the available labour force in Kolkata slums were unemployed.  Bengal basin comprises three structural units: shelf or platform in the west; central hinge or shelf/slope break; and deep basinal part in the east and southeast.  The area occupied by the present-day city encompassed three villages: Kalikata, Gobindapur and Sutanuti.  Major periodicals based in Kolkata include Desh, Sananda, Saptahik Bartaman, Unish-Kuri, Anandalok and Anandamela. , The discovery and archaeological study of Chandraketugarh, 35 kilometres (22 mi) north of Kolkata, provide evidence that the region in which the city stands has been inhabited for over two millennia. and 22.2% were casual labourers. :3 The number of Armenians, Greeks, Jews and other foreign-origin groups declined during the 20th century.  A force of Company soldiers (sepoys) and British troops led by Robert Clive recaptured the city the following year. Kolkata houses many premier research institutes like Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science (IACS), Indian Institute of Chemical Biology (IICB), Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (IISER), Bose Institute, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP), Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Calcutta, All India Institute of Hygiene and Public Health, Central Glass and Ceramic Research Institute (CGCRI), S.N. Agencies operating long-distance bus services include the Calcutta State Transport Corporation, the South Bengal State Transport Corporation, the North Bengal State Transport Corporation and various private operators. Our easy-to-use app shows you all the restaurants and nightlife options in your city, along with menus, photos, and reviews. :56–57 Diseases like diabetes, asthma, goitre and other thyroid disorders were found in large numbers of people.  The presence of paras, which are neighbourhoods that possess a strong sense of community, is characteristic of the city.  The 2000s saw a surge of investments in the real estate, infrastructure, retail, and hospitality sectors; several large shopping malls and hotels were launched. The Calcutta Rowing Club hosts rowing heats and training events. Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management, National Institute of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Kolkata, List of Bengali-language television channels, Bengali-language 24-hour television news channels, List of twin towns and sister cities in India, "India: Calcutta, the capital of culture-Telegraph", "Kolkata remains cultural capital of India: Amitabh Bachchan – Latest News & Updates at Daily News & Analysis", "Foundation of Kolkata Museum of Modern Art laid", "AC-Wise Polling Stations – South 24 Parganas", "Kolkata Municipal Corporation Demographics", "Urban agglomerations/cities having population 1 million and above", "INDIA STATS: Million plus cities in India as per Census 2011", "Report of the Commissioner for linguistic minorities: 47th report (July 2008 to June 2010)", "Official language status for Urdu in some West Bengal areas", "India's top 15 cities with the highest GDP Photos Yahoo! As of 2010[update], the Kolkata urban agglomeration is home to 14 universities run by the state government. Private institutions include the Ramakrishna Mission Vivekananda Educational and Research Institute and University of Engineering & Management (UEM).  The Kolkata Port Trust manages docks in Kolkata and Haldia.  Among Kolkata's widely circulated Bengali-language newspapers are Anandabazar Patrika, Bartaman, Ei Samay Sangbadpatra, Sangbad Pratidin, Aajkaal, Dainik Statesman and Ganashakti. Hindi and Urdu are spoken by a sizeable minority. Vocational programs are also available. Kolkata hosts the headquarters of three major public-sector banks: Allahabad Bank, UCO Bank, and the United Bank of India; and a private bank Bandhan Bank.  Facing frequent skirmishes with French forces, the British began to upgrade their fortifications in 1756. :4:92 The authorised slums (with access to basic services like water, latrines, trash removal by the Kolkata Municipal Corporation) can be broadly divided into two groups—bustees, in which slum dwellers have some long term tenancy agreement with the landowners; and udbastu colonies, settlements which had been leased to refugees from present-day Bangladesh by the government.  It is a major commercial and military port, and is the only city in eastern India, apart from Bhubaneswar to have an international airport.  The city has an apolitical titular post, that of the Sheriff of Kolkata, which presides over various city-related functions and conferences.  From the 1960s to the late 1990s, several factories were closed and businesses relocated. There are several explanations for the etymology of this name: Although the city's name has always been pronounced Kolkata or Kôlikata in Bengali, the anglicised form Calcutta was the official name until 2001, when it was changed to Kolkata in order to match Bengali pronunciation. :48, Among the surveyed cities, Kolkata stood second (5%) for children who had not had any vaccinations under the Universal Immunization Programme as of 2005[update]. Calcutta was the centre for the Indian independence movement. Bengali and English are the primary languages of instruction; Urdu and Hindi are also used, particularly in central Kolkata. (Express Photo/Reuters) Almost three years ago to this day, amidst much fanfare, Argentine football legend Diego Maradona had arrived in Kolkata. The north–south distance is greater, and its axis is used to section the city into North, Central, South and East Kolkata. The Calcutta High Court has jurisdiction over the state of West Bengal and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It was preceded by the Supreme Court of Judicature at Fort William which was established in 1774.  The city has witnessed a steady increase in the number of registered vehicles; 2002 data showed an increase of 44% over a period of seven years. However, road transport slows down during office hour rush.  Parts of the city lack proper sewerage, leading to unsanitary methods of waste disposal.. :41 The total fertility rate in Kolkata was 1.4, The lowest among the eight cities surveyed. Kolkata is located over the "Bengal basin", a pericratonic tertiary basin. North Kolkata is the oldest part of the city.  The city serves as the headquarters of three railway Zone out of Eighteen of the Indian Railways regional divisions—the Kolkata Metro Railways, Eastern Railway and the South-Eastern Railway. , State-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, or BSNL, as well as private enterprises, among them Vodafone, Bharti Airtel, Reliance, Idea Cellular, Aircel, Tata DoCoMo, Tata Teleservices, Virgin Mobile, and MTS India, are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city. As in many other Indian cities, information technology became a high-growth sector in Kolkata starting in the late 1990s; the city's IT sector grew at 70% per annum—a rate that was twice the national average. A demographically diverse city, the culture of Kolkata features idiosyncrasies that include distinctively close-knit neighbourhoods (paras) and freestyle conversations (adda). The city and its port were bombed several times by the Japanese between 1942 and 1944, during World War II. Kolkata: The Regional Meteorological Centre at Alipore has predicted that some parts of North Bengal are likely to receive low pressure-induced rainfall in the next 48 hours. View Menus, Pictures, Ratings and Reviews for Best Lunch in South Kolkata - South Kolkata Restaurants for Lunch Zomato is the best way to discover great places to eat in your city. , Bengali Hindus form the majority of Kolkata's population; Marwaris, Biharis and Muslims compose large minorities. This is clearly visible in their outfits too. B. D. Bagh (formerly known as Dalhousie Square).  The shelf and hinge zones have many faults, among them some are active. Menus, Photos, Ratings and Reviews for Best Dine-Out Restaurants in South Kolkata Zomato is the best way to discover great places to eat in your city. , Kolkata's schools are run by the state government or private organisations, many of which are religious.  Marble Palace is a classic example of a European mansion that was built in the city.  Kolkata has the Indian Premier League franchise Kolkata Knight Riders; the Cricket Association of Bengal, which regulates cricket in West Bengal, is also based in the city. Total thickness of sediment below Kolkata is nearly 7,500 m (24,600 ft) above the crystalline basement; of these the top 350–450 m (1,150–1,480 ft) is Quaternary, followed by 4,500–5,500 m (14,760–18,040 ft) of Tertiary sediments, 500–700 m (1,640–2,300 ft) trap wash of Cretaceous trap and 600–800 m (1,970–2,620 ft) Permian-Carboniferous Gondwana rocks. By means of the borough committees, the corporation undertakes urban planning and maintains roads, government-aided schools, hospitals, and municipal markets.  During the 19th and 20th centuries, Bengali literature was modernised through the works of authors such as Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Michael Madhusudan Dutt, Rabindranath Tagore, Kazi Nazrul Islam and Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay. Kolkata (/kɒlˈkɑːtə/ or /kɒlˈkʌtə/, Bengali: [ˈkolˌkata] (listen), also rendered Calcutta /kælˈkʌtə/, the official name until 2001) is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal.  Another new style, jibonmukhi gaan ("songs about life"), is based on realism.  According to provisional results of the 2011 national census, Kolkata district, which occupies an area of 185 km2 (71 sq mi), had a population of The Royal Calcutta Turf Club hosts horse racing and polo matches. :105 In 2005, Kolkata had the highest percentage (55%) among the surveyed cities of anaemic women, while 20% of the men in Kolkata were anaemic. The Diplomatic representation of more than 65 Countries and International Organization is present in Kolkata as Consulate office, honorary Consulate office, Cultural Centre, Deputy High Commission and Economic section and Trade Representation office.. In 1856 the Bengal Government appointed George Turnbull to be the Commissioner of Drainage and Sewerage to improve the city's sewerage. The city receives 2,107 hours of sunshine per year, with maximum sunlight exposure occurring in April.  The final population totals of census 2011 stated the population of city as 4,496,694.  The Victoria Memorial and Kolkata Race Course are located at the southern end of the Maidan. Priyam Ghose Recommended for you. , The partition of Bengal in 1905 along religious lines led to mass protests, making Calcutta a less hospitable place for the British.  Large majority of publishers of the city is concentrated in and around College Street, "... a half-mile of bookshops and bookstalls spilling over onto the pavement", selling new and used books. Following independence in 1947, Kolkata, which was once the centre of Indian commerce, culture, and politics, suffered many decades of political violence and economic stagnation.. Most government establishments and institutions are housed in the centre of the city in B. His warning went unheeded, and the Nawab attacked; he captured Fort William which led to the killings of several East India company officials in the Black Hole of Calcutta. Job Charnock, an administrator who worked for the company, was formerly credited as the founder of the city; In response to a public petition, the Calcutta High Court ruled in 2003 that the city does not have a founder. :65–66 Central Kolkata hosts the central business district. 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