Rabbinic Judaism, which probably originated during the Babylonian Exile and became organized after the destruction of the Second Temple of Jerusalem by the Romans in 70 ce, concerned itself primarily with the solution of legal and ethical problems. The resolution of a contradiction between the Mishnah and a baraita often serves as the jumping off point for more extensive discussion of the details of the law on the specific topic. The amoraim and the later redactors of the halakhic midrashim (the so-called tannaitic midrashim) sought to reintegrate law and Scripture, to demonstrate that the written and oral laws constituted one unified revelation of God. Between then and the period leading up to the Great Revolt of 66–73 C.E. John, on the other hand, seems to have been more moderate and was friendly with Simeon ben Gamliel, the leading Pharisee. Today, these tractates are arranged roughly in size order within each order, at least in the Mishnah texts. This Pharisaic heritage in the Middle Ages, when Judaism faced the challenges of the Islamic and Christian worlds, was again able to prevail and to flourish by the process of organic, subtle, and imperceptible self-modification and adaptation. The Mishnaic tractates served as the basis for these discussions. They understand the Diaspora as a trauma and thank the rabbis for, presumably, stepping in to save Jerusalem. Hereafter, it is possible to trace the growing process of separation from the end of the first century C.E. Yet as the oral tradition became so extensive and complex, and as individuals kept private written texts, this distinction no longer held. When the Temple was taken away, its replacement had already been created. //-->