In an ideal scenario, this topic has to be considered as early as possible in the policy cycle, when preparing the policy and planning the related monitoring and evaluation activities (particularly the data collection). Previous Page. As Rowley puts it (2002): "Triangulation uses evidence from different sources to corroborate the same fact or finding.". For most case studies, the primary source of data will be participant interviews. 1, pp. External validity – the extent to which it is possible to generalise from the findings of case studies. Direct observation occurs when the researcher observes but does not participate. Broadly speaking, the positivist approach looks at objective reality, which exists beyond the human mind, whereas the interpretivist approach sees knowledge of the world as inevitably affected by the observer. Internal validity – this seeks to establish a causal relationship, and is relevant for explanatory rather than exploratory cases. 0000012692 00000 n Tables are commonly used for this purpose, with a framework to suit the relevant data outcomes. Seawright and Gerring (2008, pp. This method of qualitative data analysis starts with an analysis of a single case to formulate a theory. Yin, R.K. (2003), Case Study Research: Design and Methods, 3rd ed., Sage, London. According to Woodside (2010, pp. In summary, the protocol should cover the following: You should have decided on the type of case, and type of design, and how your case(s) relate to the population studied, etc., at an earlier stage. Besides discussing case study design, data collection, and analysis, the refresher addresses several key features of case study research. 0000003526 00000 n Develop a descriptive framework for organising the case study. ���_��W�+��� Cepeda, G. and Martin, D. (2005), "A review of case studies publishing in Management Decision: guides and criteria for achieving quality in qualitative research", Management Decision, Vol. [�i4�F��k���(��Z ��R�����]�v��xQ�9Ih"N#��Y�9��3�#�����G�S��9���R��,�Lۼ�aÔ+��� ��X|������` j�� However, given the difficulties of getting a representative case, on both practical and theoretical grounds, they suggest that purposive sampling may be more appropriate (p. 296). i�!lAEV��R�^�l1�.%�0����z���!&�FSlt{=�|a�{��W���������{�h��{�..ni`&�������������\\�� @X@!%ec� �466�iM��� R�����e��P1FAA��K\��5�O �ĶKx�&蹬������A�����#�j�6^CD2:X�qLlޠx�TpA]� �����P�\�rLX���Z�� ��� os�9�Y�� And the negative side of readily available specialist statistical software is that it becomes that much easier to generate elegantly presented rubbish” [2] . If data collection for case studies is difficult, data analysis is no less so. For case study analysis, one of the most desirable techniques is to use a pattern-matching logic. %PDF-1.4 %���� Next Page . The most common techniques used to collect data for case studies are: personal interviews; direct observation; psychometric tests ; archival records; Advantages of Case Studies. This helps with triangulation, where different lines of enquiry converge, with the findings of one set of data corroborating another. Qualitative data analysis is a search for general statements about relationships among categories of data." Research method is the effective tool towards gathering of information in sciences. Essay on urbanization for asl essay writing on save nature syracuse essay questions essay on planting trees for class 5. 0000033660 00000 n It includes an iterative process in which initial analysis of data shapes subsequent data collection and analysis. 749 49 Yin (2009, location no. x�bb�f`b``Ń3� ���ţ�1�x4>F�c�a� ��� Reliability – another researcher should be able to go in and repeat the case study, and come up with the same findings. 0000002893 00000 n Pattern matching. These should have informed the data collection, and during the analysis the researcher trawls through the evidence, looking for corroborative (or not) evidence. Get ready to publish a teaching case study, How to... use secondary data and archive material, How to... use ethnographic methods and participant observation, A review of case studies publishing in Management Decision: guides and criteria for achieving quality in qualitative research, http://sws.bu.edu/jgerring/documents/Experimental.pdf, Case study research and network theory: birds of a feather, Stakeholder management online: an empirical analysis of US and Swedish political party web sites, Case study method for new product development in engineer-to-order organizations, Case Study Research: Theory, Methods and Practice. Some case study research goes beyond being a type of qualitative research, by using a mix of quantitative and qualitative evidence. endstream endobj 759 0 obj<>stream Discussion Each stage of the analysis framework is described with illustration from the research example for the purpose of highlighting the benefits of a systematic approach to handling large data sets from multiple sources. A revelatory case – one that reveals a phenomenon hitherto unexplored. Furthermore, different data sources can support one another with complementary strengths: for example, document analysis is good for establishing facts, whereas interviews enable the researcher to probe. A Case Study of Sensor Data Collection and Analysis in Smart City: Provenance in Smart Food Supply Chain. Construct validity can be improved by: 2. Like the Yin (1994) strategy, the Miles and Huberman (1994) process of analysis of case study data, although quite detailed, may still be insufficient to guide the novice researcher. One major advantage of the case study in psychology is the potential for the development of novel hypotheses for later testing. 3, pp. Because research takes place "in the field", there is a close relationship between theory and what is happening on the ground. International Journal of Distributed Sensor Networks 2013 9: 11. Lasica Ilona-Elefteryja, Maria Meletiou-Mavrotheris, Konstantinos Katzis, A Teacher Professional Development Program on Teaching STEM-Related Topics Using Augmented Reality in Secondary … 25-36. Simply select … 0000016881 00000 n A large project with multiple cases, or a complex single case with much data collection, for example, may require a team of research assistants. Many would say that it is not, on the grounds that case studies are too particular (although this applies less to multiple case studies). This is known as analytical generalisation. 2 No. propose an approach to the analysis of case study data by logically linking the data to a series of propositions and then interpreting the subsequent information. Cepeda and Martin's view of conceptual frameworks and the research cycle (2005, p. 861). endstream endobj 757 0 obj<> endobj 758 0 obj<>stream Margaret Adolphus talks about what case study research is, and sets out the best approaches to data collection and analysis. Figuring out what to collect in addition to the interview data is the challenge. 0000033583 00000 n Helping make sure that people's names are spelt correctly. This simply means choosing whether your study will include just one, or several cases. For example, a case could be about a school and its response to a new demographic trend or government edict, in which case it would be holistic. Observations can be done of individuals within the case in their natural setting. One can ask themselves, "How do we prevent this from happening again?" If you conduct a pilot case study, this will help you refine your plans for collecting data, for example the type of questions you might want to ask your interview subjects. 0000033228 00000 n Exploratory: the case study is used to define questions and hypotheses – or to test out a research procedure – for a further piece of research, such as a large-scale survey. 0000004039 00000 n (Yin, 2003, location no. The following principles will help increase construct validity and reliability. It is also important to have clarity in terms of the trail of evidence that leads from the research questions to the conclusions, and back again. Gummesson, E. (2007), "Case study research and network theory: birds of a feather", Qualitative Research in Organizations and Management: An International Journal, Vol. 0000018678 00000 n Each type of data collection requires its own skill set which the researcher will have to master. The advantages and disadvantages of case studies as a data collection method are discussed and guidelines for their use are given. The questions need to be suitable: large enough to provide sufficient scope for research, but new enough not to have already been answered. Rely on the study's theoretical propositions. A critical case – i.e. 0000037889 00000 n Case studies involve research about humans and their actions, and you need to take special care to protect your subjects from any harm resulting from your research. Single cases and multiple cases can be holistic or embedded. If you are not part of a team, you may find it beneficial to attend a course on research methods for case studies, perhaps held by your institution or by an independent body. 0000038317 00000 n Analysis is usually unusual and concurrent with data collection. 226-248. The researcher needs to establish that x causes y, and show that there are no other factors that could have played a part in y. The use of multiple case designs has therefore become more frequent over recent years. Cross-case synthesis. should draw on the researcher's prior expert knowledge in the area of the case study, but in an unbiased and objective manner. The iterative quality of grounded theory would seem to remove it from consideration in orthodox case study design. You can also talk to experienced case study researchers you know in your department or through your network, and look at relevant scholarly articles. 0000015819 00000 n It can also be a useful method when the unit of analysis, or the subject under consideration, is a collective entity such as an organisation or a community. If case study research is never a soft option, the collection and analysis of data can be particularly challenging. Lloyd-Jones, G. (2003), "Design and control issues in qualitative case study research", International Journal of Qualitative Methods, Vol. 827) advises narrowing down the research question to something more specific, in order to look for relevant evidence. As such, they are most appropriate for dealing with a subject that is context dependent, complex, unusual, or where there is some ambiguity. 0000028246 00000 n It is the investigation and exploration of an event thoroughly and deeply. Providing that these data are central to the case study and to any propositions you are investigating, combining statistical and qualitative analysis will offer a strong strategy. Woodside (2010, p. 107) maintains that a multiple methods approach is essential in order to elicit both conscious and unconscious thinking processes. Case Study Research Narrative theory research analysis approach involves in-depth examination of a case under study. • Benefits from the prior development of theoretical propositions to guide data collection and data analysis. Some, however, use quantitative data, perhaps gained from surveys, or from existing statistics (for example crime rates, employees' salaries, student achievement). Tabular materials, including survey and quantitative data. How you do this will vary according to your target audience. Any narratives composed by the researcher during investigations. 8T�EQ������'=����k�������[����h$P�����^��r��*Mu�i�v|-! Whoever studies the data, gathers the information, analyses it and draws conclusions. This is different from quantitative analyses where these activities tend to occur more sequentially. 0000015982 00000 n Quite often this criticism relates not to the method as such, but to the way case studies are presented: the author does not leave a clear audit trail detailing his or her research and explaining the conclusions. 0000012413 00000 n See "How to... conduct interviews". Especial care needs to be taken with vulnerable groups, such as children. Following are the advantage of case study Method. what happened, how, and why? Corroborating, or contradicting, evidence from interviews or other sources. 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